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11. Classify each of the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous:

____________________ a. lemonade with pulp

____________________ b. coffee with cream and sugar

___________________ c. vinegar

___________________ d. dessert gelatin with pears in it

12. Compare suspensions, colloids, and solutions in terms of particle size and methods to separate each type of mixture.

13. Explain how you can speed up the dissolving process when preparing juice from frozen concentrate.

14. Summarize how to produce three solutions of sugar in water: an unsaturated solution, a saturated solution, and a supersaturated solution.

15. Describe what happens to a saturated solution of sugar in water when the temperature of the solution is suddenly lowered by 10C.

16. Classify each of the following substances as acidic, basic, or neutral:

_______________ a. a dilute solution of vinegar in water, which has more H3O+ ions than OH- ions

_______________ b. soapy water with a lower H3O+ ion concentration than OH_ ion concentration

_______________ c. a solution with an equal concentration of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions

_______________ d. a bitter liquid

_______________ e. pure water

_______________ f. a tart solution of mixed citrus juices

17. Write the balanced chemical equation that describes the ionization of nitric acid, HNO3 , in water.

18. Write the balanced chemical equation that describes the dissociation of the strong base magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2 , in water.

20. Compare the acidity of three solutions having pH values of 2, 3, and 6.

21. Creative Thinking A red juice extracted by boiling red cabbage can serve as a pH indicator. Red cabbage indicator is red at low pH (pH = 1 to 4), a light purple at neutral (pH = 7) green at moderately basic pH (pH = 8 to 11), and yellow at very basic pH (pH = 13)

a. Construct a pH scale below that indicates colors using this information.

b. Indicate on the pH scale above the approximate locations of the common liquids listed below:





Cows milk









Milk of magnesia


Orange juice


Black tea


Sea water


c. Compare the acidity of orange juice with that of cows milk and black tea.

22. Applying Knowledge When water and lithium chloride, LiCl, are mixed, LiCl dissolves. When toluene and LiCl are mixed, LiCl does not dissolve. When toluene and water are mixed, they form two immiscible layers. Deduce the nature of toluene (that is, polar, nonpolar, or ionic) from the three observations. Explain.

23. Explain How is a strong acid different from a weak acid?

24. Explain How are soaps and detergents alike and how they are different?

25. Concept Mapping Complete the concept map below by writing the correct word or phrase in the lettered boxes.