Chapter 1 Reading Guide†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††† Name ____________________________________

 

Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. Where appropriate use complete sentences.

Section 1.1

1. What is matter?

2. What is chemistry?

3. What are the five major areas of chemistry?

4. Identify the appropriate subdivision of chemistry for each of the following examples.

a. Investigating ways to slow down the rusting of steel

b. Developing a better insulin-delivery system for diabetics

c. Determining the amount of mercury present in a soil sample

d. Comparing the hardness of copper and silver

e. Developing a new carbon-based fiber for clothing

5. ______________________ chemistry is research that is directed toward a practical goal or application; ______________________ chemistry is the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake.

6. Why is the study of chemistry important?

7. List three careers that require some knowledge of chemistry.

Section 1.2

1. Is the following statement true or false? Chemists design materials to fit general needs.

2. In George de Mestralís hook-and-loop tapes, were the hooks macroscopic or microscopic?

3. List two ways to meet the demand for energy.

4. How does insulation help conserve energy?

5. How are soybeans used as a source of energy?

6. How do chemists contribute to agriculture?

7. What are two ways that chemists work to protect the environment?

8. What strategies have been used to prevent lead poisoning in children?

9. Why wonít the method used to discover the chemical composition of stars work for the moon and planets?

10. Look at Figure 1.14 on page 17. What is the key difference in the methods scientists used to analyze rocks from Earthís moon and Mars?

Section 1.3

1. Alchemists developed processes for separating ______________________ and purifying _______________.

2. What is the scientific method?

3. What do scientists do if the results of an experiment do not support the hypothesis?

4. The variable that you change during an experiment is the ____________________________ .

5. The variable that is observed during an experiment is the ____________________________ .

6. What is a scientific law?

7. Which of the following statements expresses a scientific law.

a. As the temperature of a balloon increases, the balloon expands.

b. Increasing the temperature of a balloon might cause it to burst.

c. If all other variables are kept constant, the volume of a gas increases as the temperature increases.

d. Sometimes increasing the temperature of a gas causes the gas to expand.

8. How are journals helpful to scientists?

Section 1.4

1. What is involved in effective problem solving?

2. What are the three steps for solving numeric problems?

3. What must you determine first when solving a word problem?

4. What are two skills that you may need to use as you calculate an answer to a problem?

5. If your answer to a problem does not seem reasonable, list two things you can do.

6. After you identify the known and unknown in a conceptual problem, what should you do next?

7. What are the steps for solving conceptual problems?