Chapter 4 Reading Guide ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Name ____________________________________


Answer the following questions on your own paper. Use complete sentences where appropriate.


Section 4.1

  1. What are atoms?
  2. Who first suggested atoms.
  3. What were the flaws in his ideas?
  4. Answer the interpreting diagrams question in Figure 4.2
  5. What was the difference between Democritus and Daltonís approach?
  6. What are the four parts of Daltonís Atomic theory.
  7. What does the dividing have to do with what makes an atom?
  8. How big are atoms?
  9. How do scientists see atoms?


Section 4.2

  1. How is the modern view of the atom different from Daltonís theory?
  2. Describe electrons.
  3. What was the cathode ray?
  4. What two ways can the cathode ray deflected?
  5. What did this deflection tell Thomson?
  6. Thomson observed that the production of cathode rays did not depend on the kind of gas in the tube or the type of metal used for the electrodes. What conclusion did he draw from these observations?
  7. What ratio was Thomson able to measure?
  8. What did his results tell him?
  9. What did Millikan find?
  10. Describe an electron.
  11. What are the four ideas about charges and matter in the atom?
  12. What is left when a hydrogen atom loses an electron?
  13. How was this confirmed?
  14. What did Chadwick find?
  15. Describe Thomsonís model of the atom.
  16. What did Rutherford use to investigate the atom?
  17. What was expected in Rutherfordís experiment?
  18. What happened in Rutherfordís experiment?
  19. Why did Rutherford say the atom was empty?
  20. Where did Rutherford say the mass and positive charge were in the atom?
  21. What makes up the nucleus?
  22. What is the nuclear atom?

Copy and complete the following table on your paper

Section 4.3

  1. Where are the protons neutrons and electrons in an atom?
  2. Why are atoms of different elements different?
  3. What is the atomic number?
  4. What charge do atoms have?
  5. How are the number of protons and electrons related?
  6. What is the mass number?
  7. What do you need to know to find an atomís composition?
  8. What two things does the number of protons equal?
  9. How do you find the number of neutrons?
  10. Where do you write the atomic number in a chemical symbol?
  11. Where do you write the mass number in a chemical symbol?
  12. Where do you write the mass number in the name of an atom?
  13. How are isotopes different?
  14. Why do isotopes have the same chemical behavior?
  15. Why donít we use the actual values of atoms?
  16. What is the atomic mass unit?
  17. What is a good approximation for the mass of a proton or a neutron?
  18. Why are the masses of atoms not whole numbers?
  19. What two factors are taken into account in calculating the atomic mass?
  20. How do you calculate atomic mass
  21. What does the periodic table allow you to compare?
  22. What order are elements listed in on the periodic table?
  23. What is a period?
  24. What is a group?



56. The element copper has naturally occurring isotopes with mass numbers of 63 and 65. The relative abundance and atomic masses are 69.2% for mass62.93 amu and 30.8% for mass 64.93 amu. Calculate the average atomic mass of copper.


Step 1. Will the average atomic mass be closer to 63 or to 65? Explain.






Step 2. For Cu-63: 69.2% _ 62.93 amu = 0.692 x 62.93 amu = _____________________

Step 3. For Cu-65: 30.8% _ 64.93 amu = ___________ x ___________ = ___________________

Step 4. Average mass: 43.6 amu +________________ = ____________________


Step 5. Explain why your answer is reasonable.