Discovering Periodic and Group Trends††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Name ____________________________________

 

Below is a table of properties of the representative elements in the first five periods. By graphing this data we will discover how they change as you go across a period and down a group. There are analysis questions on the back of this page that should be answered after the graphs are drawn.

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Symbol

Ionization Energy (eV)

Atomic Radius

Electro negativity

Period

Group

Name

1

H

13.60

79

2.2

1

1A

Hydrogen

2

He

24.59

49

 

1

8A

Helium

3

Li

5.39

205

0.98

2

1A

Lithium

4

Be

9.32

140

1.57

2

2A

Beryllium

5

B

8.30

117

2.04

2

3A

Boron

6

C

11.26

91

2.55

2

4A

Carbon

7

N

14.53

75

3.04

2

5A

Nitrogen

8

O

13.62

65

3.44

2

6A

Oxygen

9

F

17.42

57

3.98

2

7A

Fluorine

10

Ne

21.56

51

 

2

8A

Neon

11

Na

5.14

223

0.93

3

1A

Sodium

12

Mg

7.65

172

1.31

3

2A

Magnesium

13

Al

5.99

162

1.61

3

3A

Aluminum

14

Si

8.15

146

1.9

3

4A

Silicon

15

P

10.49

123

2.19

3

5A

Phosphorus

16

S

10.36

109

2.58

3

6A

Sulfur

17

Cl

12.97

97

3.16

3

7A

Chlorine

18

Ar

15.76

88

 

3

8A

Argon

19

K

4.34

277

0.82

4

1A

Potassium

20

Ca

6.11

223

1

4

2A

Calcium

31

Ga

6.00

181

1.81

4

3A

Gallium

32

Ge

7.90

152

2.01

4

4A

Germanium

33

As

9.81

133

2.18

4

5A

Arsenic

34

Se

9.75

122

2.55

4

6A

Selenium

35

Br

11.81

112

2.96

4

7A

Bromine

36

Kr

14.00

103

 

4

8A

Krypton

37

Rb

4.18

298

0.82

5

1A

Rubidium

38

Sr

5.70

245

0.95

5

2A

Strontium

49

In

5.79

200

1.78

5

3A

Indium

50

Sn

7.34

172

1.96

5

4A

Tin

51

Sb

8.64

153

2.05

5

5A

Antimony

52

Te

9.01

142

2.1

5

6A

Tellurium

53

I

10.45

132

2.66

5

7A

Iodine

54

Xe

12.13

124

 

5

8A

Xenon


 

Questions and Analysis:

1. In general, as you go across a period, what happens to the

††††††††††† A. Atomic radius?

††††††††††† B. Ionization energy?

††††††††††† C. Electronegativity?

2. Where are there exceptions to these general trends?

3. The elements in the same group are graphed up and down in each of the graphs. For example elements 4, 12, 20, and 38 are all in group 2A. In general as you go down a group, what happens to the

††††††††††† A. Atomic radius?

††††††††††† B. Ionization energy?

††††††††††† C. Electronegativity?

4. Where are there exceptions to these general trends?

5. Radium is in the seventh period.

A. Would you expect it to be larger or smaller than barium? Why?

B. Would you expect it to be larger or smaller than francium? Why?

C. Would you expect its ionization energy to be larger than bariumís? Why?

D. Would you expect its ionization energy to be larger than franciumís? Why?

E. Would you expect its electronegativity to be larger than bariumís? Why?

F. Would you expect its electronegativity to be larger than franciumís? Why?


††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† Name ____________________________________

Graph the Atomic Radius for each element in Period 2 in one color

On the same graph, graph the atomic radius for each element in Period 3 in a second color, Period 3 in a third color and period 4 in a fourth color. Make sure to label the key for which color is which period.

Text Box: Atomic Radius (pm)

Key:

Period 2

Period 3

Period 4

Period 5

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Repeat the process above for the Ionization Energy for each element in Period 2, 3, 4 and 5. Make sure to label the key for which color is which period.

Text Box: Ionization Energy (eV)

Key:

Period 2

Period 3

Period 4

Period 5

 

 


Repeat the process above for the electronegativity for each element in Period 2, 3, 4 and 5. Make sure to label the key for which color is which period.

Text Box: Electronegativity
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atomic Number